Monday, May 6, 2013


(APRIL 2013)
A new report on the European Union, a new review of research on the effects of corporal punishment, new laws prohibiting corporal punishment in schools as countries edge their way towards achieving full legal protection for children, the latest news on corporal punishment in the work of the treaty monitoring bodies and the Universal Periodic Review – all this and more in this second global newsletter of 2013….
Contents (click on the links for further information)
1. Global progress – new report on progress in the European Union; moves towards reform in AnguillaLithuaniaPakistanRepublic of Korea,Zimbabwe; positive developments in the CaribbeanIndiaJapanMaldivesPakistanSouth Africa; less positive developments in Sri LankaUK and UR Tanzania
3. Human rights monitoring – recommendations on corporal punishment from the Committee on the Rights of the Child and other treaty bodies; details of opportunities for briefing the treaty bodies; the latest news from the Universal Periodic Review
4. Research and reports – new review of research on the effects of corporal punishment; research and reports from AfricaBelarusBosnia and HerzegovinaChadLithuaniaNigeriaSouth AfricaTogoUR TanzaniaUS
5. Can you help?  ways you can help the work of the Global Initiative

More than half the child population in the European Union enjoy full legal protection from all forms of corporal punishment in all settings. As membership of the EU has grown over the last two decades, so too has the number of EU member states enacting laws to prohibit corporal punishment of children, including in their family homes. But there is still work to do. Eleven member states have still to achieve the necessary full law reform; not all of these are yet committed to doing so.

A new regional report – Prohibiting corporal punishment: achieving equal protection for children in EU member states – was published in February 2013 by the Global Initiative. It reviews progress towards prohibition in all European Union member states in the context of follow-up to the UN Secretary General’s Study on Violence against Children. With details and illustrations of progress to date, information on relevant European and international human rights law, campaigns, research and growing support for prohibition including among religious leaders, as well as individual country reports, the report is intended as a key resource for all those entrusted with protecting children in Europe from this most common and deep rooted form of violence.

For hard copies and further information, contact The report is also available in accessible format.
 Positive moves towards law reform
AnguillaThe Education Act 2012 was passed in December and includes prohibition of corporal punishment, defined as “the application of physical force to punish or correct the student or child, whether or not there are also other reasons for so doing” (article 144). We are currently trying to find out if the Act has received assent, at which time it comes into force.
Lithuania: Amendments to the Law on Fundamentals of Protection of the Rights of the Child which would prohibit all corporal punishment of children, including in the home, are currently under discussion in parliament. A final vote is expected in May.
Pakistan: With the passage of the Sindh Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2013, corporal punishment is now unlawful in government schools for children aged 5-16 in Sindh province. Balochistan has also passed a Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2013 but we have yet to confirm that it includes prohibition of corporal punishment. Punjab Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif has reportedly stated that similar legislation will prohibit corporal punishment in schools in Punjab province and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Chief Minister Ameer Haider has “taken notice” of the issue (The International News, 13 March 2013).
Republic of Korea: The National Human Rights Council has announced that it is actively considering the adoption of a comprehensive anti-discrimination law based on recommendations made during the Universal Periodic Review of the state by the Human Rights Council in 2012, including the recommendation to prohibit corporal punishment of children in all settings. (The Dokdo Times, 17 February 2013)
Zimbabwe: The new Constitution was approved after a constitutional referendum was held in March 2013. It does not explicitly prohibit corporal punishment of children in all settings but the provision in the previous Constitution which explicitly allows corporal punishment of children by parents and as a sentence of the courts is not reiterated in the new Constitution. The Constitution will come into force once promulgated by the President.
Other developments
… at regional level
Caribbean: A “Regional Roadmap on the Protection of Children against all forms of violence in the Caribbean” has been adopted to follow up the UN Study on Violence against Children in the Caribbean. It is the latest outcome from a meeting held in 2012 in Kingston, Jamaica, organised with the Global Movement for Children in Latin America and the Caribbean in partnership with the Special Representative on Violence against Children Marta Santos Pais, with the support of CARICOM (see newsletter 20). The Roadmap identifies as one of its three priority recommendations the “adoption of national legislation prohibiting all forms of violence against children”. Under this heading it states: “States in the Caribbean are urged to explicitly prohibit corporal punishment in all settings. This legal prohibition will send a clear message that all forms of violence against children and adolescents are inadmissible. The explicit prohibition on physical and humiliating punishment is essential, as is the repeal of defences currently included in legislation, including the term ‘moderate’ or ‘reasonable’, which introduces an element of discretion that is inconsistent with the rights of children and adolescents to their personal integrity and human dignity…. Sentences such [as] corporal punishment, death penalty and life imprisonment should be abolished in all countries in the region.” Recommendations are made for implementing the roadmap, including the designation of a high level authority in each country to coordinate implementation of the UN Study recommendations, follow up by Independent National Human Rights Institutions and the development of roadmaps at national level.
… at national level
India: The Delhi Commission for Protection of Child Rights, for the Department of Women and Child Development, has released draft Guidelines for the Prevention of Child Abuse for public consultation. The Guidelines note that current measures to combat child abuse include the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009, which prohibits corporal punishment in schools, and to the Guidelines for Eliminating Corporal Punishment in Schools issued by the NCPCR; however, the new draft guidelines make no further reference to corporal punishment of children. In the Foreword to the draft, Chairperson of the Commission Arun Mathur invites readers to notify the Commission of any “lacunae or overlap in respect of any part of the guidelines” and welcomes “suggestions and inputs for modification” by emailing encourage child rights advocates to email the Commission and recommend that the guidelines include measures aimed at eliminating corporal punishment of children and calling for prohibition of all corporal punishment, including in the home. The Government has previously stated its commitment to enacting prohibition in all settings. For further details see the Global Initiative’s country report on India.

A pilot project has been launched in Andhra Pradesh for the reporting of non-medical emergencies, including corporal punishment in schools and colleges. Parents and students can dial 100 to lodge a complaint, which will be passed on to local police who will visit the scene. (The Korea Times, 6 February 2013; Express News Service, 13 April 2013)
Japan: On 13 March 2013, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology issued a new circular setting out what constitutes corporal punishment as prohibited by law in schools (“Regarding a Thorough Understanding of Prohibition of Corporal Punishment and Verbal Instructions to Pupils and Students”, 24 Monka-sho No. 1269, Mar 13, 2013). The circular clarifies that corporal punishment includes forcing a student to adopt positions which over time may cause pain and that the prohibition applies during after school activities as well as in school; it also clarifies when physical force may be used. Publication of the circular follows the suicide of a 17 year old boy after he was assaulted by his basketball coach. An investigation found that the coach had long used harsh methods of discipline. More than 350 teachers in primary and secondary schools were reportedly subjected to disciplinary action in the last academic year for inflicting corporal punishment on students. (South China Morning Post, 4 February 2013)
Maldives: Following the sentencing by the Juvenile Court of a 15 year old girl to flogging to be carried out when she reaches the age of 18 (see newsletter 22), the Government has issued a media statement asserting its belief that the case “merits appeal”. Drawing attention to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Government states that the verdict “has brought home the critical and severe need to review existing mechanisms, especially legal framework, available for protecting the rights of the children in the Maldives” and calls for a number of Bills currently pending to be passed into law urgently. (“Media statement: Sentencing of flogging a 15-year-old sexual abuse victim is deeply concerning: Government of Maldives”, Malé, 28 February 2013). (Note: While the Children’s Bill would reportedly prohibit corporal punishment, the draft Penal Code Bill would introduce a defence for the use of corporal punishment as “justifiable force”; the Penal Code Bill was recently amended to include punishments for had offences under Shari’a law such as amputation for theft. (Minivan News, 8 April 2013)
Pakistan: The Punjab Educational Foundation (PEF), in collaboration with Plan International, has launched a mechanism to respond to any complaints of corporal punishment in primary schools and to raise awareness of the negative effects of corporal punishment. The programme aims to extent the concept of Plan’s Learn Without Fear campaign in all the PEF partner schools in the district of Rajanpur. (The International News, 5 April 2013)
South Africa: Following reports of a school handing out forms asking parents for consent to their children being caned at school, the Western Cape Education Department issued a statement confirming that corporal punishment is unlawful in schools under the South African Schools Act and that anyone who contravenes this is guilty of an offence and liable to conviction. (Eyewitness News, 7 February 2013)
 But ...
Sri Lanka: It was widely reported that Mohan Pieris, de facto Chief Justice, during the opening of a Circuit Court at Manampitiya, criticized persons who file fundamental human rights cases for “trivial” reasons such as when a teacher twisted a boy’s ear. Child rights activists argued that such comments are likely to encourage teachers to violate the Ministerial Circular stating that corporal punishment should not be used in schools. (Colombo Telegraph, 13 March 2013) (Note: Despite the Ministerial circular, there is no prohibition in law of corporal punishment in schools.)
UK: Speaking during an interview with the Mail on Sunday, Justice Secretary Chris Grayling defended parents’ right to smack their children, stating that he was not opposed to it and that “sometimes it sends a message” (Huffington Post, 4 February 2013)
In Scotland, a motion put forward by Mike Crockart MP to make a ban on smacking children part of the Scottish Liberal Democrat’s official party policy was defeated by 51 votes to 42. Mr Crockart admitted to having smacked his own son but said that he now thinks it was “completely and utterly the wrong thing to do” (Edinburgh Evening News, 11 March 2013).
UR Tanzania: In April 2013, during the launch of an education website for secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Deputy Minister for Educational and Vocational Training Mr Philipo Mulugo stated that corporal punishment will continue to be imposed in public schools. (Daily News, 9 April 2013)
National campaigns and callfor prohibition
Côte d’Ivoire: Droits des Enfants en Côte d'Ivoire (DECI) is a child rights NGO which campaigns against corporal punishment in schools. “Sababou”, a documentary film featuring DECI's Chairperson Rosine Bengali, was released in March 2013. It shows Rosine Bengali campaigning for the implementation of the Ivorian ministerial order against corporal punishment in schools. (Note: The 2009 Ministerial Order stating that corporal punishment should not be used in public or private schools has not yet been confirmed through law reform.)
India: “The Indian Child Abuse Neglect & Child Labour group (ICANCL) of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics published a special issue of its CANCL News  journal with the theme of “End corporal punishment”. Topics covered in the special issue, released at the Golden Jubilee of the National Conference of Pediatrics in January 2013, include the physical and psychological effects of corporal punishment and campaigns to end it in Indian schools and homes.
South Africa: The South African Government has expressed concern about incidents of corporal punishment at some schools. TheGovernment Communication and Information System (GCIS) Acting Chief Executive Officer Phumla Williams stated that “whilst Government acknowledges the need to discipline children in order to encourage positive and responsible behaviour, such discipline must be done in a constructive manner and within the confines of the law. Teachers are encouraged to find ways to instill self-discipline amongst learners without resorting to physical, emotional or psychological punishment. The aim is to grow children to become responsible citizens through long-term corrective methods rather than through short-term punitive methods such as corporal punishment.” (Government Communication and Information System, Republic of South Africa, 8 April 2013) (Note: Corporal punishment was prohibited in schools in 1996.)
Uganda: Raising Voices has launched a new website ( Raising Voices is a founding member and current chair of the Coalition against Corporal Punishment, working to ensure that the issue of prohibiting corporal punishment remains a national priority and that efforts to respond to the issue are shared and coordinated.
UK: During the Stage 1 consideration of the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Bill, now before the National Assembly in Wales, major Welsh organisations lobbied the Government to include banning physical punishment in the Bill, and Assembly Members (AMs) stated that they would be tabling amendments to remove the “reasonable punishment” defence. A campaign video was produced, coordinated by theChildren Are Unbeatable! Alliance in Wales. As part of the campaign, a vigil was held at Brecon Cathedral, organised by the Churches’ Network for Non-violence, at which candles were lit in memory of children who have suffered violence. The vigil marked the end of a two day roadshow, providing help and advice to parents on positive, non-violent parenting.
Kedecisions and recommendationsetc
The Committee on the Rights of the Child held its 62nd session 14 Jan – 1 Feb 2013 and in its concluding observations made strong recommendations on prohibiting and eliminating corporal punishment to all states. For further information see the Global Initiative’s individual country reports for GuineaGuyanaMalta and Niue.
The Committee has also adopted a new General Comment No. 15 on “The right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (art. 24)”. Recognising the negative impact of corporal punishment on children’s health, the General Comment confirms states’ obligation to prohibit and eliminate it (para. 68): “In the light of the impact of corporal punishment on children’s health, including fatal and non-fatal injury and the psychological and emotional consequences, the Committee reminds States of their obligation to take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to eliminate corporal punishment and other cruel or degrading forms of punishment in all settings, including the home.”
The Human Rights Committee concluded its 107th session on 28 March 2013. In the Lists of Issues adopted by the Committee – to which states under examination were required to submit written answers prior to the session – the Committee asked about progress towards prohibiting corporal punishment in all settings in Belize, China-Macau, China-Hong Kong and Paraguay. The Committee went on to recommend prohibition and elimination of corporal punishment in all settings to the Governments of Belize and Hong Kong. For further information see the Global Initiative’s individual country reports for BelizeHong KongMacau and Paraguay.
The Annual Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children, Marta Santos Pais, was presented to the General Assembly. It provides a preliminary summary of the results of the global survey launched by the Special Representative in 2011, completed by over 100 Governments. The report states that more than 20% of respondents claimed to have prohibited corporal punishment in all settings, over 50% in some settings (para. 67). The findings are to be presented in detail in a separate publication.
The report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment to the 22nd session of the Human Rights Council focuses on abuses in health-care settings. It notes the violence which often occurs in compulsory drug detention centres – where both children and adults may be detained – including beatings, caning or whipping and compulsory “physical disciplinary exercises”.
resolution on “the right of the child to the highest attainable standard of health”, adopted by the Human Rights Council at its 22nd session in March 2013, calls upon states to ensure that no child deprived of their liberty is sentenced or subject to corporal punishment (para. 21). The resolution also calls on states to take measures to identify, prevent and protect children from all forms of violence in all settings and to abolish and ensure a clear ban on harmful practices compromising the dignity and integrity of the child (para. 22).
The African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child held its 20th session in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in November 2012. The report of the session notes that the Committee raised the issue of corporal punishment in its examination of Sudan; the Committee’s recommendations are to be sent to the Government of Sudan. The Committee recently released its recommendations to the Government of Cameroon, which had been examined in the 18th session in 2011. The Committee recommended implementation of the prohibition of corporal punishment in schools.
The European Committee of Social Rights is to consider complaints submitted under the collective complaints procedure against seven European states for not clearly prohibiting corporal punishment of children. The complaints – against Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Italy, Ireland and France – were submitted by the Association for the Protection of All Children (APPROACH) Ltd and registered by the European Committee on 4 February. In each case, the complaint is that laws protecting children from corporal punishment are inadequate and therefore in breach of the European Social Charter. The complaints can be downloaded on the Council of Europecollective complaints website. For further information on the legality of corporal punishment in each of the above states, see the Global Initiative’s individual state reports: BelgiumCyprusCzech RepublicFranceIrelandItalySlovenia.
The Global Initiative regularly briefs human rights treaty monitoring bodies prior to examination of state parties, and encouragenational NGOs and human rights institutions to do likewise. We are particularly trying to identify key NGOs and human rights institutions in each state with whom we can work more closelyif you/your organisation are interested, please
Opportunities for briefing treaty bodies arise in relation to the Lists of Issues adopted for each state in advance of examination as well as insubmitting information immediately prior to the examination of stateby the Committees. The deadlines for submitting briefingrelevant toupcoming sessions are set out below. The Global Initiative is always willing to advise NGOs and human rights institutions on the practicaldetails of how to submit briefings (email
 Committee on the Rights of the Child:
(1) Session 64 (16 Sept – 4 Oct 2013). The Committee will examine China, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Lithuania, Monaco, Sao Tome and Principe, Tuvalu: the deadline for submitting briefings is not yet published.
(2) Session 66 Pre-Sessional Working Group (7 – 11 Oct 2013). The PSWG will adopt Lists of Issues for Indonesia, India, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, St Lucia: the deadline for submitting briefings is 1 July 2013.
Committee Against Torture:
(1) Session 51 (28 Oct – 22 Nov 2013). The Committee will examine Andorra, Belgium, Burkina Faso, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Mozambique, Poland, Portugal, Uzbekistan: the deadline for submitting briefings is 11 October 2013.
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights:
(1) Session 51 (4 – 29 November 2013). The Committee will examine Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, Kuwait, Norway: the deadline for submitting briefings is not yet published.
(2) Session 52 Pre-sessionaWorking Group (2 – 6 Dec 2013). The PSWG will adopt Lists of Issues for Armenia, Czech Republic, El Salvador, Finland, Indonesia, Monaco, Nepal, Portugal, Serbia, Ukraine: the deadline for submitting briefings is not yet published.
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women:
(1) Session 55 (8 – 26 July 2013). The Committee will examine Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cape Verde, Cuba, DR Congo, Dominican RepublicSerbia, UK: the deadline for submitting briefings is 24 June 2013.
(2) Session 55 Pre-sessionaWorking Group (29 Jul – 2 Aug 2013). The PSWG wiladopt Lists of Issues for Bahrain, Cameroon, Finland,Iraq, Kazakhstan, Qatar, Senegal, Sierra Leone: the deadline for submitting briefings is 24 June 2013.
Human Rights Committee:
(1) Session 108 (8 – 26 July 2013). The Committee will examine Albania, Czech Republic, Finland, Indonesia, Tajikistan Ukraine: the deadline for submitting briefings is 14 June 2013.
(2) Session 108 (8 – 26 July 2013). Country Report Task Forces will adopt Lists of Issues for Chad, Chile, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Nepal and Sierra Leone: the deadline for submitting briefings by email has passed; hard copies must be submitted by 14 June 2013.
Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities:
Information not yet available.
The Universal Periodic Review
The obligation to prohibit and eliminate corporal punishment of childrecontinues to be raised with states in the UniversaPeriodic Reviewof their overall human rights records. The Global Initiative submits briefings on every state being reviewed, sharing advance draft briefings with relevant organisations to encourage submissions at nationalevel. We also conduct a follow up programme, pursuing the issue with states that accept recommendations to prohibit corporal punishment by writing to key NGOs, NHRIs and Government ministers, and undertake ongoing analysis of coverage of the issue in all aspects of the UPR process (for further information
The second cycle of the UPR is now well undeway. Corporal punishment was raised with all 14 states due for review in the 15th session of the Universal Periodic Review, held 21 Jan – 1 Feb. Of the 13 states examined (Israel’s review did not take place), three have already achieved prohibition of corporal punishment in all settings: LiechtensteinLuxembourgRomania. Of the 10 states which have not yet achieved the necessary law reform, recommendations on the issue were made to eight – accepted by one state, partially accepted by two; the responses of five states are due by June 2013: Bahamas (response pending), Barbados (response pending), Botswana (recommendations rejected), France (response pending), Montenegro (recommendations partially accepted; full response pending), Serbia (recommendations accepted), Tonga (recommendations partially accepted; full response pending), United Arab Emirates (response pending). Two states –Burundi and Mali – did not receive a recommendation despite the fact that corporal punishment of children is lawful in those states.
Session 16 is now in progress. Recommendations to prohibit all corporal punishment of children have so far been made to Burkina Faso (rejected – though a recommendation to implement existing legislation in schools was accepted), Cape Verde (accepted), Turkmenistan (accepted) and Tuvalu (mixed response). At the time of writing, information is not yet available for Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Cameroon, Canada, Cuba, Djibouti, Germany and Russian Federation. A full report will be included in the next newsletter.
Opportunities for submitting briefings for the session 17 of the UPR, to be held in Oct/Nov 2013, have now passed. The deadlines forbriefing states being reviewed in session 18 (Jan/Feb 2014) are:
17 June 2013 – Afghanistan, Chile, New Zealand, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Viet Nam, Yemen
24 June 2013  Cambodia, Comoros, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Slovakia, TFYR Macedonia
The evidence that corporal punishment is harmful to children, adults and societies is overwhelming. The more than 150 studies included in the Global Initiative’s new review of research on the effects of corporal punishment show associations between corporal punishment and a wide range of negative outcomes, including: direct physical harm, negative impacts on mental and physical health, poor moral internalisation , increased aggression in children, increased perpetration and experience of violence in adults, increased antisocial behaviour, poor cognitive development, and damaged family relationships. Intended for use by advocates for prohibition, the review shows how corporal punishment violates not just children’s right to freedom from all violence, but also their rights to health, development and education. Research into the effects of corporal punishment: working paper (March 2013) is available A summary version is also available.
 International and regional reports
AfricaPocket Statistics on Children in Africa 2012, published by The African Child Policy Forum presents the latest available data on issues related to children in Africa. It covers demographic, economic, education, health, and other child related indicators. Summary statistics on Africa are followed by statistics on individual countries, including the legality of corporal punishment.
National research and reports
Belarus: According to statistics collected under round 4 of the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey programme (MICS4), in 2011 64.5% of children aged 2-14 experienced physical punishment and/or psychological aggression. (National Statistical Commission of the Republic of Belarus (2013), Republic of Belarus Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey of Children and Women 2012: Preliminary Findings,UNICEF)
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Statistics collected under round 4 of the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey programme (MICS4), in 2010-2011 revealed that 55.2% of 2-14 year olds experienced violent “discipline” (physical punishment and/or psychological aggression). Among Roma children, the figure was 57.6%. Nearly five per cent (4.5%) of all children and 7% of Roma children experienced severe physical punishment (being hit or slapped on the face, head or ears or being hit over and over with an implement) and nearly 42.1% of all children and 49.2% of Roma children experienced psychological aggression (being shouted at, yelled at, screamed at or insulted). (Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina et al (2013), Bosnia and Herzegovina Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2011–2012, Final Report, Sarajevo: UNICEF; Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina & Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2013), Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2011–2012, Bosnia and Herzegovina: Roma Survey, Sarajevo: UNICEF)
Chad: Round 4 of the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey programme (MICS4) found that in Chad in 2009, 84.3% of children aged 2-14 experienced violent “discipline” (physical punishment and/or psychological aggression): 76.6% experienced physical punishment, 41.1% severe physical punishment (being hit or slapped on the face, head or ears or being hit over and over with an implement); 70.9% experienced psychological aggression (being shouted at, yelled at, screamed at or insulted). (République du Tchad Ministère du Plan, de l’Economie et de la Coopération Internationale et al (2013), Enquête par grappes à indicateurs multiples: Tchad 2010)
Lithuania : As part of Save the Children’s 2011-2012 “Educate, Do Not Punish” project to protect children from corporal punishment, including through law reform, a study involving 1,004 parents, 540 children and 250 social workers and other professionals working with children and parents was carried out in 2012. More than four parents in ten (43.2%) said that a few times a year they slap their children, 17.5% that they embarrass and ridicule their children and 16% that they beat their child with an object. Children were asked about their reactions to corporal and other degrading punishment: they said that they feel anger (38.7%), argue with adults (34.6%), laze about (25.5%) and have conflict with adults (24.2%). Nearly sixty per cent (59.6) of parents thought that corporal punishment is justified in some situations and 37.3% thought that corporal punishment should not be used; 23% of parents supported prohibition of all corporal punishment, 44.2% opposed prohibition. (Save the Children Lithuania (2012), The Situation of Invoking Corporal Punishment of Children in Lithuania: Study Summary, Save the Children Lithuania). Publication of the research coincides with efforts to promote law reform (see section 1 above). Thefull report is available in Lithuanian; a summary is available in English.
Nigeria: A report carried out at the end of the Transforming Education for Girls in Nigeria and Tanzania (TEGINT) project, a 2007-2012 initiative to transform the education of girls in Northern Tanzania and Northern Nigeria, found that in Nigeria 71% of community members and 72% of girls agreed “it is not okay for teachers to whip a girl who comes late to school because she was caring for a sick relative”. The study involved surveys with 629 girls and 186 community members. (Institute of Education & ActionAid (2013), Transforming Education for Girls in Nigeria: Endline research summary report, Abuja: ActionAid Nigeria)
South Africa: The second National School Violence Study undertaken by the Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention (CJCP) revealed the continued use of physical punishment in South African schools, despite prohibition. Overall, 49.8% of the learners surveyed said they had been caned or spanked by an educator or principal as a punishment. This was an increase from 47.5% in 2008. Provincial rates of corporal punishment ranged from 22.4% to 73.7%, with the highest levels of corporal punishment in KwaZulu-Natal (73.7%). (Burton, P. & Leoschut, L. (2013), School Violence in South Africa: Results of the 2012 National School Violence, Cape Town, The Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention)
Togo: In a study on the wellbeing and vulnerability of child domestic workers, 56% of the child domestic workers involved in Togo said that their employers physically punished them. The study was conducted in 2009 in Peru, Costa Rica, Togo, Tanzania, India and Philippines with around 3,000 children, mostly aged 10-17, half of whom worked as paid or unpaid domestic workers. (Anti-Slavery International (2013), Home Truths: Wellbeing and vulnerabilities of child domestic workersLondon: Anti-Slavery International)
UR Tanzania: A report carried out at the end of the Transforming Education for Girls in Nigeria and Tanzania (TEGINT) project, a 2007-2012 initiative to transform the education of girls in Northern Tanzania and Northern Nigeria found that in Tanzania 70% of community members and 87% of girls agreed “it is not okay for teachers to whip a girl who comes late to school because she was caring for a sick relative”. The study involved surveys with 295 girls and young women aged 11-22 and 91 community members. (Institute of Education & ActionAid (2013), Transforming Education for Girls in Tanzania: Endline research summary report, Das es Salaam: ActionAid Tanzania)

In the above mentioned study on the wellbeing and vulnerability of child domestic workers (see Togo, above), 30% of the child domestic workers involved in Tanzania said that their employers physically punished them. (Anti-Slavery International (2013), 
Home Truths: Wellbeing and vulnerabilities of child domestic workersLondon: Anti-Slavery International)
US: A 2013 analysis of the General Social Survey 2010 by the Child Trends Data Bank found that female college graduates were less likely than male college graduates to  think that “spanking” is sometimes necessary – 56% of females compared to 71% of males. The same was true of people educated to high school level – 69% of females thought that spanking is sometimes necessary compared to 80% of males. Of people with less than a high school education, 67% of females thought that spanking is sometimes necessary, compared to 63% of males. (Reported in InForum, 13 January 2013)
Promoting positive, non-violent discipline
We are still collecting resources for promoting positive discipline in homes, schools and other settings – especially those developeas part of a comprehensive campaign including for lareform – to list on our website. If you cahelp please email
Research on corporal punishment of children
Evidence of the nature and prevalence of corporal punishment gathered through national studies helps to keep the issue visible and provides a baseline against which the effectiveness of prohibition and associated awareness raising can be measured. Please let us know of any new or planneresearch (email
 Other ways to help 
We would also appreciate your help by
·       joining our list of volunteer translators
·       sending us information on relevant legislation
·       letting us know about current opportunities for promoting prohibition (new laws being drafted, bills being discussed, etc)
·       sending us contact details for organisations campaigning to prohibit and eliminate corporal punishment of children.
If you cahelp witany of the above, email  info@endcorporalpunishment.orgBack to contents
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 “Nobody can be complacent: while Europe is in the forefront in outlawing violent punishment of children, … there are still states within Europe openly defending the deeply insulting concept of ‘reasonable’ violence, declining to give children equal protection from assault in their homes, where they are hit the most…. The issue could not really be simpler – hitting people is wrong and children are people too.”
(Professor Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro, The Independent Expert who led the UN Study on Violence against Children, Message to the Global Initiative’s regional report Prohibiting corporal punishment: achieving equal protection for children in EU member states – Progress report 2013)

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